仔细观察下列词语的构成形式,再照样子写几个。

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天南海北 天南地北 大街小巷 大同小异 苦尽甘来 出生入死 前赴后继

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Dream

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For other uses, see Dream (disambiguation).

"Dreams" and "Dreaming" redirect here. For other uses, see Dreams (disambiguation) and Dreaming (disambiguation).

A dream is a hallucinatory experience involving a sequence of images, sounds, ideas, emotions, or other sensations usually ring sleep, especially REM sleep.

The events of dreams are often impossible, or unlikely to occur, in physical reality: they are also outside the control of the dreamer. The exception to this is known as lucid dreaming, in which dreamers realize that they are dreaming, and are sometimes capable of changing their dream environment and controlling various aspects of the dream. The dream environment is often much more realistic in a lucid dream, and the senses heightened.

Contents

[hide]

* 1 Neurology of dreams

o
1.1 Stages of sleep

o
1.2 Discovery of REM

o
1.3 Continual-activation theory

o
1.4 Dreams and memory

+
1.
4.1 Hippocampus and memory

o
1.5 Functions of dreams

* 2 Cultural history

* 3 Dream content

o
3.1 Emotions

o
3.2 Gender differences

o
3.3 Sexual content

o
3.4 Recurring dreams

o
3.5 Common themes

o
3.6 Disease-Associated Differences

* 4 Dream interpretation

* 5 Other associated phenomena

o
5.1 Lucid dreaming

o
5.2 Dreams of absent-minded transgression

o
5.3 Dreaming as a skeptical argument

o
5.4 Recalling dreams

o
5.5 Déjà vu

o
5.6 Dream incorporation

* 6 See also

* 7 References

o
7.1 Cited

o
7.2 General

* 8 Literature

o
8.1 Classical texts

o
8.2 Cultural and literary history of the dream

o
8.3 Psychology and psychotherapy

o
8.4 Lucid dreaming

o
8.5 Dreams and esotericism

* 9 External links

[edit] Neurology of dreams

There is no universally agreed biological definition of dreaming. Dreaming can sometimes seem so realistic lucid dreamers often do not know if they are indeed dreaming. General observation shows that dreams are strongly associated with Rapid eye movement (REM) sleep, ring which an electroencephalogram shows brain activity to be most like wakefulness. Participant-remembered dreams ring non-REM sleep are normally more mundane in comparison.[1] During a typical lifespan, a human spends a total of about six years dreaming[2] (which is about 2 hours each night[3]). It is unknown where in the brain dreams originate, if there is a single origin for dreams or if multiple portions of the brain are involved, or the purpose of dreaming is for the body or mind.

[edit] Stages of sleep

When the body decides that it is time to sleep, neurons near the eyes begin to send signals throughout the body. Dr. Hobson explains that these neurons are located in such close proximity to neurons that control eyelid muscles that the eyelids begin to grow heavy.[4] Glands begin to secrete a hormone that helps ince sleep and neurons send signals to the spinal cord which cause the body to relax.

During sleep the body passes through four different stages each differing in length and degree of sleep. REM (rapid-eye-movement) sleep is when the majority of dreams takes place. Dreams tend to last for the entire REM cycle ranging from about ten to twenty-five minutes. Dreams usually occur ring these regular sleep cycles, but they may also occur at other times, such as when one falls asleep or begins to awaken.[5] The other three stages are called NREM (non-rapid-eye-movement) sleep. These four stages repeat throughout sleep but in different lengths of time. Infants have about twice as much REM sleep as alts.[6]

[edit] Discovery of REM

EEG showing brainwaves ring REM sleep

EEG showing brainwaves ring REM sleep

In 1953 Eugene Aserinsky discovered REM sleep while working in the lab of his PhD advisor. Aserinsky noticed that the sleepers' eyes fluttered beneath their closed eyelids, later using a polygraph machine to record their brain waves ring these periods. In one session he awakened a subject who was crying out ring REM and confirmed his suspicion that dreaming was occurring.[7] In 1953 Aserinsky and his advisor published the ground-breaking study in Science.[8]

In 1976 J. Allan Hobson and Robert McCarly proposed a new theory that changed dream research, challenging the previously held Freudian view of dreams as subconscious wishes to be interpreted. The activation synthesis theory asserts that the sensory experiences are fabricated by the cortex as a means of interpreting chaotic signals from the pons. They propose that in REM sleep, the ascending cholinergic PGO (ponto-geniculo-occipital) waves stimulate higher midbrain and forebrain cortical structures, procing rapid eye movements. The activated forebrain then synthesizes the dream out of this internally generated information. They assume that the same structures that ince REM sleep also generate sensory information.

Hobson and McCarly's 1976 research suggested that the signals interpreted as dreams originated in the brain stem ring REM sleep. However, research by Mark Solms suggests that dreams are generated in the forebrain, and that REM sleep and dreaming are not directly related.[9] While working in the neurosurgery department at hospitals in Johannesburg and London, Solms had access to patients with various brain injuries. He began to question patients about their dreams and confirmed that patients with damage to the parietal lobe stopped dreaming; this finding was in line with Hobson's 1977 theory. However, Solms did not encounter cases of loss of dreaming with patients having brain stem damage. This observation forced him to question Hobson's prevailing theory which marked the brain stem as the source of the signals interpreted as dreams. Solms viewed the idea of dreaming as a function of many complex brain structures as validating Freudian dream theory, an idea that drew criticism from Hobson.[10]

[edit] Continual-activation theory

Combining Hobson's activation synthesis hypothesis with Solms's findings, the continual-activation theory of dreaming presented by Jie Zhang proposes that dreaming is a result of brain activation and synthesis; at the same time, dreaming and REM sleep are controlled by different brain mechanisms. Zhang hypothesizes that the function of sleep is to process, encode and transfer the data from the temporary memory to the long-term memory, though there is not much evidence backing up this so-called "consolidation." NREM sleep processes the conscious-related memory (declarative memory), and REM sleep processes the unconscious related memory (proceral memory).

Zhang assumes that ring REM sleep, the unconscious part of a brain is busy processing the proceral memory; meanwhile, the level of activation in the conscious part of the brain will descend to a very low level as the inputs from the sensory are basically disconnected. This will trigger the "continual-activation" mechanism to generate a data stream from the memory stores to flow through the conscious part of the brain. Zhang suggests that this pulse-like brain activation is the incer of each dream. He proposes that, with the involvement of the brain associative thinking system, dreaming is, thereafter, self-maintained with the dreamer's own thinking until the next pulse of memory insertion. This explains why dreams have both characteristics of continuity (within a dream) and sudden changes (between two dreams).[11][12]

[edit] Dreams and memory

Eugen Tarnow suggests that dreams are ever-present excitations of long-term memory, even ring waking life. The strangeness of dreams is e to the format of long-term memory, reminiscent of Penfield & Rasmussen’s findings that electrical excitations of the cortex give rise to experiences similar to dreams. During waking life an executive function interprets long term memory consistent with reality checking. Tarnow's theory is a reworking of Freud's theory of dreams in which Freud's unconscious is replaced with the long-term memory system and Freud's “Dream Work” describes the structure of long-term memory.[13]

Location of hippocampus

Location of hippocampus

[edit] Hippocampus and memory

A 2001 study showed evidence that illogical locations, characters, and dream flow may help the brain strengthen the linking and consolidation of semantic memories. These conditions may occur because, ring REM sleep, the flow of information between the hippocampus and neocortex is reced.[14] Increasing levels of the stress hormone Cortisol late in sleep (often ring REM sleep) cause this decreased communication. One stage of memory consolidation is the linking of distant but related memories. Payne and Nadel hypothesize that these memories are then consolidated into a smooth narrative, similar to a process that happens when memories are created under stress.[15]

[edit] Functions of dreams

There are many hypotheses about the function of dreams. Freud proposed that one function of dreams is to protect our sleep. He believed that it was the purpose of dreams to hold one’s attention so as not to awaken from any outside stimuli.[16] During the night there may be many external stimuli bombarding the senses but the mind interprets the stimulus and makes it a part of a dream in order to ensure continued sleep.[17] The mind will, however, awaken an indivial if they are in danger or if trained to respond to certain sounds, such as a baby crying. Dreams may also allow the repressed parts of the mind to be satisfied through fantasy while keeping the conscious mind from thoughts that would suddenly cause one to awaken from shock.[18] Freud suggested that bad dreams let the brain learn to gain control over emotions resulting from distressing experiences. [16] Dreams also let the mind express things that would normally be suppressed in the waking world, thus keeping itself in harmony. Dreams may also offer a view at how future events might proceed; this is similar to running future events through the mind, for instance: a work presentation, a job interview, or a first date.

Jung suggested that dreams may compensate for one-sided attitudes held in waking consciousness.[19] Ferenczi[20] proposed that the dream, when told, may communicate something that is not being said outright. There have also been analogies made with the cleaning-up operations of computers when they are off-line. Dreams may remove parasitic nodes and other "junk" from the mind ring sleep. [21] [22] Dreams may also create new ideas through the generation of random thought mutations. Some of these may be rejected by the mind as useless, while others may be seen as valuable and retained. Blechner[23] calls this the theory of "Oneiric Darwinism." Dreams may also regulate mood. [24] Hartmann [25] says dreams may function like psychotherapy, by "making connections in a safe place" and allowing the dreamer to integrate thoughts that may be dissociated ring waking life.

[edit] Cultural history

Jacob's dream of a ladder of angels

Jacob's dream of a ladder of angels

Dreams have a long history both as a subject of conjecture and as a source of inspiration. Throughout their history, people have sought meaning in dreams or divination through dreams. They have been described physiologically as a response to neural processes ring sleep, psychologically as reflections of the subconscious, and spiritually as messages from God or predictions of the future. Many cultures practiced dream incubation, with the intention of cultivating dreams that were prophetic or contained messages from the divine.

[edit] Dream content

From the 1940s to 1985, Calvin S. Hall collected more than 50,000 dream reports at Western Reserve University. In 1966 Hall and Van De Castle published The content analysis of dreams in which they outlined a coding system to study 1,000 dream reports from college students.[26] It was found that people all over the world dream of mostly the same things. Hall's complete dream reports became publicly available in the mid-1990s by Hall's protégé William Domhoff allowing further different annylisis.

[edit] Emotions

The most common emotion experienced in dreams is anxiety. Negative emotions are more common than positive feelings.[26] Some ethnic groups like the Yir Yoront showed an abnormally high percentage of dreams of an aggressive nature. The U.S. ranks the highest amongst instrialized nations for aggression in dreams with 50 percent of U.S. males reporting aggression in dreams, compared to 32 percent for Dutch men.[26]

[edit] Gender differences

It is believed that in men's dreams an average of 70 percent of the characters are other men, while a female's dreams contain an equal number of men and women.[27] Men generally had more aggressive feelings in their dreams than women, and children's dreams did not have very much aggression until they reached teen age. These findings parallel much of the current research on gender and gender role comparisons in aggressive behavior. Rather than showing a complementary or compensatory aggressive style, this study supports the view that there is a continuity between our conscious and unconscious styles and personalities.

[edit] Sexual content

The Hall data analysis shows that sexual dreams show up no more than 10 percent of the time and are more prevalent in young to mid teens[26]. Another study showed that 8% of men's and women's dreams have sexual content[28].

[edit] Recurring dreams

While the content of most dreams is dreamt only once, many people experience recurring dreams—that is, the same dream narrative is experienced over different occasions of sleep. Up to 70% of females and 65% of males report recurrent dreams.[29]

[edit] Common themes

Content-analysis studies scientists have identified common reported themes in dreams. These include: situations relating to school, being chased, running slowly/inplace, sexual experiences, falling, arriving too late, a person now alive being dead, teeth falling out, flying, embarrassing moments, failing an examination, or a car accident. Twelve percent of people dream only in black and white.[30]

[edit] Disease-Associated Differences

There have been many differences in how people dream involving different diseases (normally only neurological diseases) one might have. For instance, people with Synesthesia have never reported black-and-white dreaming, and often have a difficult time imagining the idea of dreaming in black and white only.[citation needed]

[edit] Dream interpretation

Main article: Dream interpretation

Both Sigmund Freud and Carl Jung identify dreams as an interaction between the unconscious and the conscious. They also assert together that the unconscious is the dominant force of the dream, and in dreams it conveys its own mental activity to the perceptive faculty. While Freud felt that there was an active censorship against the unconscious even ring sleep, Jung argued that the dream's bizarre quality is an efficient language, comparable to poetry and uniquely capable of revealing the underlying meaning.

Fritz Perls presented his theory of dreams as part of the holistic nature of Gestalt therapy. Dreams are seen as projections of parts of the self that have been ignored, rejected or suppressed.[31] Jung argued that one could consider every person in the dream to represent an aspect of the dreamer, which he called the subjective approach to dreams. Perls expanded this point of view to say that even inanimate objects in the dream may represent aspects of the dreamer. The dreamer may therefore be asked to imagine being an object in the dream and to describe it, in order to bring into awareness the characteristics of the object that correspond with the dreamer's personality.

[edit] Other associated phenomena

[edit] Lucid dreaming

Main article: Lucid dreaming

Lucid dreaming is the conscious perception of one's state while dreaming. In this state the dreamer has control over characters and the environment of the dream as well as themselves.[32] The occurrence of lucid dreaming has been scientifically verified.[33]

[edit] Dreams of absent-minded transgression

Dreams of absent-minded transgression (DAMT) are dreams wherein the dreamer absentmindedly performs an action that he or she has been trying to stop (one classic example is of a quitting smoker having dreams of lighting a cigarette). Subjects who have had DAMT have reported awaking with intense feelings of guilt. Some studies have shown that DAMT are positively related with successfully stopping the behavior, when compared to control subjects who did not experience these dreams.[34]

[edit] Dreaming as a skeptical argument

Main article: dream argument

While one dreams a non-lucid dream, one will not realize one is dreaming (one classic example is a child dreaming that they are using the toilet and end up wetting the bed because they don't realize that they are in a dream). This has led philosophers to the idea that one could be dreaming right now (or at least one cannot be certain that one is not dreaming). First formally introced by Zhuangzi and popularized by Hin beliefs, the dream argument has become one of the most popular skeptical hypotheses. Buddhism, one of the major religions and philosophies in the world, makes most use of this argument[citation needed]. It was formally introced to western philosophy by Descartes in the 17th century in his Meditations on First Philosophy.

[edit] Recalling dreams

According to Craig Hamilton-Parker, [35] author of Fantasy Dreaming, many humans find certain dreams extremely difficult to recall. According to David Koulack in "To Catch A Dream," researchers refer to these types of dreams as "no content dream reports." It is thought that such dreams are characterized by relatively little affect. According to Koulack, factors such as salience, arousal and interference play a role in dream recall and dream recall failure. According to Henry Reed, author of Dream Medicine, a useful technique to improve dream recall is to keep a dream journal. Stephen LaBerge, author of Exploring the World of Lucid Dreaming, also suggests that one must lie perfectly still upon awaking from a dream, not letting concerns of the day occupy the mind. It is quite common to not remember much of what has just been dreamed, but LaBerge maintains that with sufficient concentration, the entire dream may be recalled.

[edit] Déjà vu

Main article: Déjà vu

The theory of déjà vu dealing with dreams indicates that the feeling of having previously seen or experienced something could be attributed to having dreamt about a similar situation or place, and forgetting about it until one seems to be mysteriously reminded of the situation or place while awake.

[edit] Dream incorporation

In one use of the term, "dream incorporation" is a phenomenon whereby an external stimulus, usually an auditory one, becomes a part of a dream, eventually then awakening the dreamer. There is a famous painting by Salvador Dalí that depicts this concept, titled "Dream Caused by the Flight of a Bee around a Pomegranate a Second Before Awakening" (1944).

The term "dream incorporation" is also used in research examining the degree to which preceding daytime events become elements of dreams. Recent studies suggest that events in the day immediately preceding, and those about a week before, have the most influence [36]. 亭台楼阁、—————————

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