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桃味蔓越莓

桃味蔓越莓

四季(Four seasons)

Spring is beautiful. It lasts from March to May. The days get longer, the nights get shorter, and the weather gets warmer. Everything begins to grow. Grass and trees begin to turn green. Flowers begin to come out. Children begin to fly kites outdoors.

Summer is best of the year. It’s the hottest season in the year. It last from June to August. People try to find a cool place then. They always go swimming in pools and eat tasty ice-creams.

Fall is the harvest season. It gets cool. Farmers begin to gather in food. They’re busy from September to November. So fall is a golden season!

The coldest season of the year is winter. It’s from about December to February. The days are short and the nights are long. When it snows, winter is a white world, It’s very pretty! And that makes children happy. They make a snowman and dance round it. They go skating as well.

飞扬

飞扬

Spring

Dates

According to the astronomical definition, Spring begins on the 21st of March and lasts until 20th of June, the vernal equinox in the northern hemisphere. According to this definition, therefore, the traditional mid-summer's day is the first day of summer. The meteorological definition (used in order to express whether 'Spring' has been hot or cold or wet, for example) has Spring starting on the 1st of March, since this more in line with weather conditions thought to be typical of Spring. The phenological definition of Spring relates to the blossoming of a range of plant species. It therefore varies according to the climate (as in 'Spring comes late to the north-east'). Calendars typically give the first, but the second and third are more in line with common use.

In the southern hemisphere, Spring is generally accepted to begin on the 1st of September and last until the 30th of November.

As in summer, the axis of the Earth is tilted toward the Sun and the length of daylight rapidly increases. The northern hemisphere begins to warm significantly causing new plant growth to "spring forth," giving the season its name. Snow begins to melt and streams swell with runoff and spring rains. Most flowering plants bloom this time of year, in a long succession sometimes beginning even when snow is still on the ground, and continuing into early summer. In normally snowless areas "spring" may begin as early as February ring warmer years, with subtropical areas having very subtle differences, and tropical ones none at all. Subarctic areas may not experience "spring" at all until May or even June, or December in the outer Antarctic.

Severe weather most often occurs ring the spring, when warm air begins to invade from lower latitudes while cold air is still pushing from the polar regions. Flooding is also most common in and near mountainous areas ring this time of year because of snowmelt, many times accelerated by warm rains. In the United States, Tornado Alley is most active by far this time of year, especially since the Rocky Mountains prevent the surging hot and cold air masses from spreading eastward and instead force them directly at each other. Besides tornadoes, supercell thunderstorms can also proce dangerously large hail and very high winds, for which a severe thunderstorm warning or tornado warning is usually issued. Even more so than winter, the jet streams play an important role in severe weather in the springtime.

The hurricane season officially begins in late spring, on May 15 in the northeastern Pacific and June 1 in the northern Atlantic. Before these dates, hurricanes are almost unheard of and even tropical storms are rare, one of the earliest ever being Tropical Storm Ana in mid-April 200
3.

Spring is seen as a time of growth, renewal, of new life (both plant and animal) being born. The term is also used more generally as a metaphor for the start of better times, as in Prague Spring.

[edit] Nowruz

Main article: Nowruz

The first day of spring is the beginning of the new year, Nowruz, in the Iranian calendar. Nowruz (also Norooz, Newroz, Navroj, and many other variants) marks an important traditional holiday festival celebrated in Iran as well as in many other countries with a significant population from one of various Iranian peoples, such as Azerjan, Afghanistan and Tajikistan, and by Kurdish communities in Turkey and Iraq and elsewhere. Several Turkic peoples also celebrate Nowruz.

Summer

The seasons are considered by some Western countries to start at the equinoxes and solstices, based on astronomical reckoning. In North American-printed English-language calendars, based on astronomy, summer begins on June 21, the day of the summer solstice and ends on the day on September 20, the autumn equinox. When it is summer in the Northern Hemisphere, it is winter in the Southern Hemisphere, and vice versa.

In Ireland, summer begins on 1 May and ends 31 July, e to the Irish calendar.

But, because the seasonal lag is less than 2/20 of a year (except near large bodies of water), the meteorological start of the season, which is based on average temperature patterns, precedes by about three weeks the start of the astronomical season. According to meteorology, summer is the whole months of December, January, and February in the Southern Hemisphere, and the whole months of June, July, and August in the Northern Hemisphere. This meteorological definition of summer also aligns with commonly viewed notion of summer as the season with the longest (and warmest) days of the year, in which the daylight predominates, through varying degrees. The use of astronomical beginning of the seasons means that spring and summer have an almost equal pattern of the length of the days, with spring lengthening from the equinox to the solstice and summer shortening from the solstice to the equinox, while meteorological summer encompasses the build up to the longest day and decline thereafter, so that summer has many more hours of daylight than spring.

Today, the meteorological reckoning of the seasons is used in Australia, Denmark, the former USSR and by many people in the United Kingdom, but the astronomical definition is still more frequently used in the United States.

In general, seasonal changes occur later in coastal regions, so countries close to the oceans go for a later start to summer (with the exception of Ireland) than inland ones. Elsewhere, however, the solstices and the equinoxes are taken to mark the mid-points, not the beginnings, of the seasons. In Chinese astronomy, for example, summer starts on or around May 6, with the jiéqì (solar term) known as Lixia (立夏), i.e. "establishment of summer". An example of Western usage would be William Shakespeare's A Midsummer Night's Dream, where the play takes place over the shortest night of the year, which is the summer solstice.

In Southern and Southeast Asia where the monsoon occurs, summer is more generally defined as March to May or early June, their warmest time of the year, ending with the onset of the monsoon rains.

Effects

In most countries children are out of school ring this time of year for summer holidays, although dates vary. Some begin as early as mid-May, although in England, from the ages of 5-16, school ends in the middle of July. In the Southern Hemisphere, school holiday dates include the major holidays of Christmas and New Year's Day. Summer school holidays in Australia begin a few days before Christmas and end in late January to mid-February, with the dates varying in different states.

Summer is also the season in which many fruits, vegetables, and other plants are in full growth.

Summer in the southern hemisphere occurs when that hemisphere tilts towards the sun. Summer in the northern hemisphere occurs when the north tilts toward the sun. The elliptical orbit of the Earth does not factor into the temperature changes, as this is a mere 4 million miles, and not enough distance to greatly alter heat.

Autumn (also known as fall in North American English) is one of the four temperate seasons. Autumn marks the transition from summer usually in September (northern hemisphere) or March (southern hemisphere) when the arrival of night becomes noticeably earlier. Autumn starts on 21st September and ends on 20th December, in the northern hemisphere.

In Ireland, autumn begins on 1 August and ends 31 October, e to the Irish calendar.

Etymology

The word autumn comes from the Old French word autompne (automne in modern French), and was later normalized to the original Latin word autumnus.[1] There are rare examples of its use as early as the 14th century, but it became common by the 16th century, around the same time as fall,[citation needed] and the two words appear to have been used interchangeably.[citation needed]

Before the 16th century, harvest was the term usually used to refer to the season. However as more people graally moved from working the land to living in towns (especially those who could read and write, the only people whose use of language we now know), the word harvest lost its reference to the time of year and came to refer only to the actual activity of reaping, and fall and autumn began to replace it as a reference to the season.

The alternative word fall is now mostly a North American English word for the season. It traces its origins to old Germanic languages. The exact derivation is unclear, the Old English fiæll or feallan and the Old Norse fall all being possible candidates. However, these words all have the meaning "to fall from a height" and are clearly derived either from a common root or from each other. The term came to denote the season in the 16th century, a contraction of Middle English expressions like "fall of the leaf" and "fall of the year".[citation needed]

During the 17th century, English immigration to the colonies in North America was at its peak, and the new settlers took their language with them. While the term fall graally became obsolescent in Britain, it became the more common term in North America, where autumn is nonetheless preferred in scientific and often in literary contexts.

[edit] Historic usage

Many ancient civilizations (such as the Amerindians and the ancient Hebrews) computed the years by autumns,[2][3] while the Anglo-Saxons did so by winters. Tacitus states that the ancient Germans were acquainted with all the other seasons of the year but had no notion of autumn — though this is likely to be wrong, especially as a blanket statement (Tacitus wrote about Germanic tribes without firsthand knowledge and thus promoted myths as well as actual information). Linwood observed of the beginning of the several seasons of the year, that:

"Dat Clemens Hyemem, dat Petrus Ver Cathedratus;

Aestuat Urbanus, Autumnat Bartholomaeus."[4]

In alchemy, autumn is the time or season when the operation of the Philosopher's stone is brought to maturity and perfection.[4] It is also symbolised by the Metal element in Chinese astrology.

In popular culture

Autumn's association with the transition from warm to cold weather, and its related status as the season of the primary harvest, has dominated its themes and popular images. In Western cultures, personifications of autumn are usually pretty, well-fed females adorned with fruits, vegetables and grains and wheat that ripen at this time. Most ancient cultures featured autumnal celebrations of the harvest, often the most important on their calendars. Still extant echoes of these celebrations are found in the mid-autumn Thanksgiving holiday of the United States, and the Jewish Sukkot holiday with its roots as a full moon harvest festival of "tabernacles" (huts wherein the harvest was processed and which later gained religious significance). There's also the many North American Indian festivals tied to harvest of autumnally ripe foods gathered in the wild, the Chinese Mid-Autumn or Moon festival, and many others. The predominant mood of these autumnal celebrations is a gladness for the fruits of the earth mixed with a certain melancholy linked to the imminent arrival of harsh weather.

This view is presented in John Keats' poem To Autumn where he describes the season as a time of bounteous fecundity, a time of 'mellow fruitfulness'.

[edit] Melancholy association

Autumn in poetry has often been associated with melancholy. The possibilities of summer are gone, and the chill of winter is on the horizon. Skies turn grey, and people turn inward, both physically and mentally.[5] Rainer Maria Rilke, a German poet, has expressed such sentiments in one of his most famous poems, Herbsttag (Autumn Day), which reads in part:

Tourism

Although colour change in leaves occurs wherever decious trees are found, coloured autumn foliage is most famously noted in two regions of the world: most of Canada and the United States; and Eastern Asia, including China, Korea, and Japan. It can also be very significant in Argentina, Australia, Chile and New Zealand, but not to the same degree.

Eastern Canada and the New England region of the United States are famous for the brilliance of their fall foliage, and a seasonal tourist instry has grown up around the few weeks in autumn when the leaves are at their peak.

Winter is one of the four seasons of temperate zones. North American calendars go by astronomy and state that winter begins on the winter solstice and ends on the vernal equinox. Calculated meteorologically, it begins and ends earlier (typically at the start of the month with the equinox or solstice) and is the season with the shortest days and the lowest temperatures. Either way, it generally has cold weather and, especially in the higher latitudes or altitudes, snow and ice. The coldest average temperatures of the season are typically experienced in January in the Northern Hemisphere and in July in the Southern Hemisphere.

Meteorology

Meteorological winter is the season having the shortest days and the lowest temperatures. Night-time predominates the winter season, and in some regions it has the highest rate of precipitation as well as prolonged dampness because of permanent snow cover or high precipitation rates coupled with low temperatures, precluding evaporation. Blizzards often develop and cause many transportation delays. A rare meteorological phenomenon encountered ring winter is ice fog, which is composed of ice crystals suspended in the air and happening only at very low temperatures, below about −30 °C [1].

Period

It is often said that, astronomically, winter starts with the winter solstice and ends with the vernal equinox. In meteorology, it is by convention counted instead as the whole months of June, July and August in the Southern Hemisphere and December, January and February in the Northern Hemisphere. While in actuality, the most accurate start and end point is simply defined by when the first major wave of cold fronts and warm fronts hit a particular area, having no universally predetermined dates.

In Celtic nations such as Ireland using the Irish calendar, the winter solstice is traditionally considered as midwinter, with the winter season beginning November 1 on All Hallows or Samhain. Winter ends and spring begins on Imbolc or Candlemas, which is February 1 or February
2. This system of seasons is based on the length of days exclusively. The three-month period of the shortest days and weakest solar radiation occurs ring November, December and January in the Northern Hemisphere and May-July in the Southern Hemisphere.

Also many mainland European countries tend to recognize Martinmas, St. Martin's day (November 11) as the first calendar day of winter. The day falls at midpoint between the old Julian equinox and solstice dates. Also, Valentines Day (February 14) is recognized by some countries as heralding the first rites of Spring (season), such as flower blooming.

In Chinese astronomy (and other East Asian calendars), winter is taken to commence on or around November 7, with the Jiéqì known as (立冬 lì dōng, literally "establishment of winter".)

The three-month period associated with the coldest average temperatures typically begins somewhere in late November or early December in the Northern Hemisphere. If "winter" is defined as the statistically coldest quarter of the year, then the astronomical definition is too late by almost all local climate standards, and the traditional English/Irish definition of November 1 (May 1 in the Southern Hemisphere) is usually too early to fit this standard. No matter the reckoning, winter is the only season that spans two calendar years in the northern hemisphere. (In other words, there are very few temperate climates in which the vernal equinox is on average colder than the winter solstice, and very few temperate climates in which Samhain is colder than Imbolc).

Activities

Snow activities

Many winter activities involve the use of snow in some form (which sometimes may still be manmade, via snow cannons):

Bobsledding - a winter sport in which teams make timed runs down narrow, twisting, banked purpose-built iced tracks in a gravity-powered, steerable sled.

Skiing - the activity of gliding over snow using fiberglass planks called skis that are strapped to the skiers' feet with ski bindings.

Sledding - a downhill activity using a sled to glide downhill.

Snowball fight - a physical game in which snowballs are thrown with the intention of hitting someone else.

Snowboarding - an increasingly common sport where participants strap a composite board to their feet and slide down a snow-covered mountain.

Snowshoeing - a means of travel on top of the snow by increasing the surface area of the feet.

Snowman building - creating a man-like model out of snow.

Snow castle building - for example constructions such as the SnowCastle of Kemi, the largest in the world.

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